Arabica Coffee Cultivation

Arabica Coffee Cultivation
Arabica Coffee Cultivation

Arabica Coffee Cultivation – The quality of the planting material has a major effect on crop yields, including coffee which is an annual crop. Supporting factors affecting the fertility of coffee plants such as soil, climate and maintenance that have not become stable will give satisfactory results if the planting material used is not superior types that have high yields and are in accordance with local environmental conditions.

Planting material in question is certain genetic material from the type of plant used as a source of plant material. In selecting planting material, it is very important to note the existing agro-climatic conditions.

Because each variety / clone requires a specific environment that can be different from each other. Superior seeds will not give satisfactory results if planted in areas that are not suitable for these superior seeds. Usually farmers use coffee seeds from plants that seem superior to other coffee plants in the vicinity.

Coffee Cultivation

From this simple selection method, superior plants will usually be obtained if the good qualities of the plant continue. However, if good characteristics arise due to local environmental influences, if planted in other areas, it is not certain to produce superior seeds as expected.

Therefore, it is better to use planting material that has been recommended and is a recommendation that has been equipped with the expected requirements so that the expected properties can be relied on.

Arabica coffee is a favorite drink of all countries, so doing coffee business is right if you have land for Arabica coffee cultivation. The best-selling coffee market is Arabica coffee, followed by Robusta and Liberica.

Soil Preparation

Coffee planting failure can be caused by many factors. Apart from poor seed, unusual tillage is often a major factor in failure. Preparation activities for Arabica coffee planting are basically no different from land preparation for Robusta coffee.

prepare the land so that the seeds transferred to the field can grow quickly and be able to deal with the very diverse environment in the field, especially the less favorable environment.

The area can be obtained from new open land (forest reserve), abandoned land, dry land, replanting area, conversion or other data rotation. During land preparation in this area, the area can still be used to grow short-lived intercrops such as corn, peanuts and others.

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The main land preparation activities include:

  • Land clearing
  • Making a terrace
  • Tree planting
  • Make a planting hole

Land clearing

Land clearing aims to clear the land from debris from previous plants. In principle the work on the preparation of areas for new openings and others is the same. Trees and shrubs are pulled out and stumps or stumps and roots are removed.

The work of making stumps and roots takes a lot of time and work, because generally wood stumps from forest reserves are deep in the soil which are quite difficult to dismantle. In this case, it is still under discussion for the use of heavy equipment because heavy equipment in carrying out its work has an effect on soil erosion of humus or soil compaction.

Clearing areas of forest reserve will combine the difficulties in sanitation of both the remaining tree canopy and the killing of the felled wood. The government in this case prohibits land clearing by burning, but on the other hand, land preparation for coffee plantations that require clean land is impossible not to burn the remnants of forest clearing.

As an illustration, the tree canopy in the reserve forest, if logging is done, how much mass of the canopy will be lowered above the ground. Based on the experience of clearing forests, at least the canopy from the reserve forest can reach piles up to 10 meters from the subgrade.

Unlike other annual crops such as oil palm, land clearing can be done by paths, because the spacing of oil palms is quite wide, at least 8 meters, while coffee plants require close distances so they must be cleared of remnants of forest clearing . Even if it is stored for organic matter, it takes a long time.

The opening conditions are from bushes, the main weeds that must be eradicated are reeds and mechanics. Plant remains that are not transported because the amount is not as large as the clearing of reserve forest can be collected and removed from the center of the land.

Burning is avoided as much as possible, but for hardwood from shrubs it can be done as it is difficult to weather although it will reduce the organic matter present. Sanitary measures are intended to facilitate further work and avoid sources of infection with root diseases or nematodes.

Soil Conservation and Terrace Making

Soil Conservation and Terrace Making
Soil Conservation and Terrace Making

Coffee cultivation on sloping land can be done with a certain planting system and spacing to reduce erosion. Coffee planting in this kind of land should not be done with the direction of the slope, but done according to the contours.

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Contour planting has a greater ability to reduce and restrain surface runoff (runoff) compared to slope planting systems.

In addition, efforts to reduce runoff and erosion can also be carried out using tighter distances. Increasing plant density means increasing ground cover and increasing soil resistance to erosion due to increased plant/staple density and greater root volume.

In soils that have long and broken slopes, it is necessary to make terraces so that there is no erosion and erosion of the top soil layer. The terrace serves to reduce the length of the slope, thereby reducing the velocity of runoff and allowing the absorption of water by plants to be greater.

Based on the results of the study, it turned out that erosion in Arabica coffee plantations with bench terraces was only 43% compared to erosion in coffee fields that were not lateral terraces (control). Erosion can still be reduced by planting terrace reinforcement, such as Moghania or fragrant grass on the edge of the terrace.

In general, there are 2 types of terraces made, namely bench terraces (individual terraces) and flat terraces.

Making terraces is also intended to facilitate maintenance and harvest implementation. This is often forgotten by farmers and plantations. The terrace will be very important in carrying out maintenance, both pruning work, pest fertilization and disease control and harvest work.

Because if there is no terrace, land with a fairly high slope will make it difficult to distribute various inputs, both in terms of seeds, fertilizers, crop yields as well as in controlling pests and diseases that require spraying and others. work. Without a terrace, workers will have difficulty putting their feet on the ground and it will be very dangerous for the workforce.

The terrace bench is shaped, elongated and commonly called a mountain belt because it usually follows the contours of the height of the area to be made on the terrace. Terrace benches are usually made because the position of the ground is quite sloping and makes it difficult for workers to carry out maintenance and harvest work. The patio bench is made by cutting the slope of a mountain and then leveling the ground at the bottom so that there is a series of stairs.

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Bench terraces are very effective on soils that have a slope of > 20%, however bench terraces are only suitable for soils that have deep solum, because the creation of bench terraces results in the opening of lower soil soils that have lower fertility than the top layer.

The area that can be planted by making terrace benches will decrease as the slope increases. On a 30% slope the arable area is reduced by 36%. Judging from the amount of costs required, the manufacture of bench terraces is relatively more expensive than individual terraces. However, in facilitating the implementation of maintenance and harvest work, bench terraces will facilitate more work than individual terraces.

Instructions for making a patio bench

Individual terraces are made only at the point of the coffee plant, and are not elongated in shape. Individual terraces are usually made in areas where the power can still carry out its activities properly with the existing land slope.

Shade tree planting

After the land is clean, the planting of shady trees is carried out. In the technical nature of coffee cultivation, there are 2 types of protective plants, namely temporary protection plants and permanent protection trees. Temporary shade plants are needed if the shade trees are still not functioning properly because they are still small or lack intensity.

Planting two shade trees should be done 1 year before planting coffee. Once the shade tree continues to function properly, the temporary shade is gradually removed.

The distance of the shade trees or the density of the shade trees must be adjusted to the distance of the coffee to be determined and the climatic conditions in which the coffee will be grown.

Shade tree planting
Shade tree planting

Determination of shade plants based on the climate in an area, the higher the rainfall and the lower the intensity of the sun, the distance between the plants in an area should be slightly shaded and vice versa for areas with strong rainfall and high-intensity sunlight, the distance between shade plants is longer. tight.

Basic shade trees for areas with a strict climate are planted 2 m x 2.5 m apart while temporary shade is planted in rows of shade trees that stretch north to south or planted outside the terrace if there is a terrace.

We coffeecafe.top kopi would like to hear your input on Arabica coffee cultivation techniques and planting experiences. Please send information to our contact, and don’t forget to share this article to make it useful.

 

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